In Critical Condition: Polemical Essays on Cognitive Science

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First, context may interact directly with bottom-up processes; this would be a sensitivity effect. However, the reader is unaware that it has been changed. Each picture contained objects you would expect in the setting and a few unexpected objects. We could, of course, spend years of effort into achieving something which turns out to be a load of rubbish and then, in order to avoid the dissonance that produces, try to convince ourselves that we didn't really spend years of effort, or that the effort was really quite enjoyable, or that it wasn't really a lot of effort.

Group Creativity: Music, Theater, Collaboration

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Carnegie Mellon/Pittsburgh - Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC): The CNBC is dedicated to the study of the neural basis of cognitive processes, including learning and memory, language and thought, perception, attention, and planning. This wrong answer she accepted as correct 76% of the time. Through these opportunities and experiences, BCN students learn diverse skills and methodologies used in cutting-edge academic and industrial laboratory settings.

Chaos and Complexity in Psychology: The Theory of Nonlinear

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Searching for the anatomy of dissociative amnesia. The key assumption is that memory performance depends on the extent to which the processes used at the time of learning are the same as those used on the memory test. However, it does have some influence on their decision making, and so cannot be said to have been ignored altogether. Google Scholar Kwak H, Lee C, Park H, Moon S: What is twitter, a social network or a news media?

Invisible Guests

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Those working in the Cognitive Psychology field often base their work in semantic studies, memory experiments, and anecdotal case studies. Three components: Motivational relevance – relevance to goals? (If positive, then there is emotion) Motivational congruence – favourable to goals? (Positive emotion when yes, negative emotion when no) Secondary appraisal – when the organism appraises the consequence of the event and decides on how to act.

The Living Classroom: Teaching and Collective Consciousness

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Schema theory and memory processes: Encoding- transforming sensory information into a meaningful memory. What such observations call for is closer analyses of the task demands and the use of such analyses to devise teachable procedures that will achieve a balance between the advantages of generality and the advantages of incorporating enough situational context to make transfer likely. There is more information available in the visual buffer than can be passed on to the later stages of visual processing, and so there needs to be an attention window to handle this problem.

Structure of the Therapy Session (COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR

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Created for all students and teachers who would like to learn more about the nervous system". Baars (1997) argued that access to consciousness is controlled by attentional mechanisms. In fact, the decision was greatly affected by group size and by the relationship between the participants and the group members (see Figure 17.3). Participants listening to the first sentence heard “wheel”, those listening to the second sentence heard “heel”, and those exposed to the third and fourth sentences heard “meal” and “peel”, respectively.

The Cognitive Foundations of Personality Traits (Emotions,

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The square brackets around the circle mean that the circle has been represented “exhaustively” in the model; that is, the alternative models will not contain a circle because in any other model where a circle occurs, there has to be a triangle (see Johnson-Laird & Savary, 1996, for a notational variant called footnotes). Anxious patients often have more pronounced cognitive biases than normals high in trait anxiety, and so may be especially likely to become trapped in such positive feedback loops.

Reasoning, Necessity, and Logic: Developmental Perspectives

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Against Popper’s dictates, most ordinary people and scientists often seek confirmatory rather than disconfirmatory evidence when testing their hypotheses (see Evans, 1989; Gorman, 1992; Mitroff, 1974; Mynatt, Doherty, & Tweney, 1977; Tweney, 1998). The existence of child prodigies appears to support this view. All basic aspects of research methodology are covered. Similar findings were reported by Schacter et al. (1996). Another difference is that prospective memory is obviously of relevance to the plans or goals we form for our daily activities in a way that is not true of retrospective memory.

Cognitive Science: A Philosophical Introduction

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However, in reply, Byrne (1991) has shown that the conclusions drawn by subjects in her experiments were not those predicted by Politizer and Braine’s account. Description: Readings, special laboratory projects, reports, and special seminars on contemporary issues in psychological research and theory. In the beginning, Beck focused on depression and conceptualized something called “errors” in thinking, that he thought would produce depression.

Thresholds of Initiation

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There were two priming or context effects. This spreading activation helps explain how thinking of one topic can bring to mind related topics. Unlike the abstract-rule theory, the model theory gives comprehension a central role in reasoning; people build models when they comprehend linguistic descriptions and then their reasoning relies on these models. Constraints on effective elaboration: Effects of precision and subject generation. Search engines can also support this diversity of mental categories by clustering results based on facets.